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Crime and Punishment

The Customs and Excise services sought to enforce the revenue laws against increasingly stiff resistance from professional smugglers profiting from the "running trade." These were well-organized and capitalized gangs, sometimes numbering in the dozens. Customs officers in lonely spots along the coasts were often outgunned and intimidated by these gangs.


Map Smuggling version 3.png

Intensity of Enforcement During the 1720s 

(darker green = more enforcement)

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