Crime and Punishment

The Customs and Excise services sought to enforce the revenue laws against increasingly stiff resistance from professional smugglers profiting from the "running trade." These were well-organized and capitalized gangs, sometimes numbering in the dozens. Customs officers in lonely spots along the coasts were often outgunned and intimidated by these gangs.

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Intensity of Enforcement During the 1720s 

(darker green = more enforcement)